The American University in Cairo Center for Migration and Refugee Studies Database
Legal Instruments
Statistics and Figures
    South Sudan

  Legal Instruments   

This section provides a list of international conventions and regional/bilateral agreements to which each country is a signatory, as well as national legislation that deals with movement, migration, asylum and human rights. Each listing includes a PDF/ link to a publically accessible document of the convention/law mentioned.
  International Conventions:

 International Criminal Law

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 10 December 1984 (entered into force 26 June 1987) 1465 U.N.T.S. 85 [CAT].

Ratified 2015


International Human Rights Law

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 18 December 1979, 1249 U.N.T.S 513 [CEDAW].

Ratified 2015



Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November 1989, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3 [CRC].

Ratified 2015



Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/217 A (III), 10 December 1948, Art 14. [UDHR].



International Humanitarian Law/Law of War

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 12 August 1949 (entered into force 21 October 1950) 75 U.N.T.S. 31 [First Geneva Convention].

Ratified 2013

Link to Conv.

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949 (entered into force 21 October 1950) 75 U.N.T.S. 85 [Second Geneva Convention].

Ratified 2013

Link to Conv.

Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 12 August 1949 (entered into force 21 October 1950) 75 U.N.T.S. 135 [Third Geneva Convention].

Ratified 2013

Link to Conv.

Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949 (entered into force 21 October 1950) 75 U.N.T.S. 287 [Fourth Geneva Convention].

Ratified 2013

Link to Conv.

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977 (entered into force Dec. 7, 1978.) 1125 U.N.T.S. 3 [Protocol I].

Ratified 2013

Link to Protocol.

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977 (entered into force 7 December 1978) 1125 U.N.T.S. 609 [Protocol II].

Ratified 2013

Link to Protocol

Protocol relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem (2005), 8 December 2005 (entered into force 14 January 2007) 2404 U.N.T.S 1[Protocol III].
Ratified 2013
Link to Protocol.


International Labor Law

ILO Convention C 111 Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (1958).

Ratified 2012

Link to Conv.

ILO Convention C 29 Forced or Compulsory Labour Convention (1932).
Ratified 2012
Link to Conv.

ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration (2005).

Link to Framework




  Regional and Bilateral Agreements:

Regional Agreements 

OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 1001 U.N.T.S. 45 (1969). 
Signed 2013, Ratified 2013

African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (The Kampala Convention) (2009).
Signed 2013, Ratified N/A

The Framework Agreement on the Status of Nationals of the Other State and Related Matters between Sudan and South Sudan (2012).

  National Legislation:

South Sudanese Nationals 

Nationality Act of 2003 repeals the The New Sudan Nationality Act 1994 and applies in the following regions: Central, Eastern and Western Equatoria, Jongley, Lakes, Northern and Western Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile and Warab. An Act to provide for the New Sudan Nationality. New Sudan means "Land, Airspace and Territorial waters under the control of the Civil Authority of the New Sudan comprised of Equatoria, Bahr El Ghazal, Upper Nile, Nuba Mountains and Fung Regions and any subsequent areas that may come under its control" (section 3).

Article 27 of the 2011 Constitution guarantees the freedom to leave and enter South Sudan for nationals 



Migration and Labor

Passports and Immigration Act of 2011

  Statistics and Figures:   

This section provides links to regularly updated sites that provide statistics on migrants and refugees in different countries around the world.

Below are links to various databases that provide statistics and figures relevant to the movement of people in and out of South Sudan:  

The World Bank 
WB-South Sudan

UNFPA Migration Indicator 

UNHCR Statistics Database

The Displacement Tracking Matrix of the International Organization for Migration 
DTM-IOM-South Sudan 

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
IDMC-South Sudan


This section includes a comprehensive list of sources and links to journal articles, books, webpages, etc. for each country in the database that address migration and refugee topics within the context of education, health, legal, psychosocial, political, among others. Each listed source includes a brief description of the material and a link.


Link to Researchers

 Johnson, Phyllis J., and Kathrin Stoll. "Remittance Patterns of Southern Sudanese Refugee Men: Enacting the Global Breadwinner Role." Interdisplinary Study of Applied Family Studies 57.4 (2008): 431-443. Link to Article

Keyword: remittances, economic, development, South Sudan, refugee, men

Based on a questionnaire from 172 refugee men in Western Canada who were remitting to family in Africa, despite the emotional and financial strain. The study finds that those who experience more emotional strain have more social support and spend less proportion of their income on remittances. On the other hand, those who experience greater financial strain have less support, but have higher income. 

Nager, Samia El. "Should I Stay Or should I Go? Decision Time for Southern Sudan People in Khartoum." Ahfad Journal 29.2 (2012): 38. Link to Article

Keyword: South Sudan, refugees, Khartoum

This study focuses on the factors that push Internally Displaced women and girls to leave Khartoum or stay following the separation of South Sudan from North Sudan, as well as the challenges both groups face in Khartoum or South Sudan upon return. The study applied a mixed methodology that included interviews, questionnaire and focuses group discussions. The author finds that learned experience contribute to the decision of both groups and mistrust in the politicians is a challenge to the decision. 

Pantuliano, Sara, Margie Buchanan-Smith, and Paul Murphy. "The Long Road Home: Opportunities and Obstacles to the Reintegration of IDPs and Refugee Returning to Southern Sudan and the Three Areas." Overseas Development Institute (2007): 1-75. Link to Article

Keyword: integration, reintegration, IDPs, return, South Sudan

This report is based on a study on the reintegration of Internal Displaced People returning to South Sudan and the Three Areas in in the ware of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The study focuses on the determinants of sustainable reintegration, successes and failure of a peaceful reintegration. 


Ali, Syed Imran, Syed Saad Ali, and Jean-Francois Fesselet. "Effectiveness of Emergency Water Treatment Practices in Refugee Camps in South Sudan." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 93.8 (2015): 550-558. Link to Article

Keyword: water, treatment, emergency, refugee camp, South Sudan 

This study investigates the effectiveness of emergency water treatment practices in Jamam, batil and Gendrassa refugee camps in Maban County, South Sudan. The study was carried out during March-April 2013; it incorporates evidence based on water, sanitation, and hygiene in emergencies and makes recommendation for best practices. 

Guerrero-Latorre, Laura, Ayalkibet Hundesa, and Rosina Girones. "Transmission Sources of Waterborne Viruses in South Sudan Refugee Camps." CLEAN: Soil, Air, Water 44.7 (2016): 775-80. (Summary adapted from resource) Link to Article

Keyword: transmission, waterborne virus, disease, water, South Sudan, refugee camps

This research evaluates different water matrices and food during the last phase of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) outbreak in South Sudan between 2012-2014. It analyzes HEV and human adenovirus (HAdV) as viral indicators of human contamination. The study finds that only household samples presented HAdV contamination. 

Grabska, Katarzyna. "The Return of Displaced Nuer in Southern Sudan: Women Becoming Men?" Development & Change 44.5 (2013): 1135-1157. Link to Article

Keyword: return, displaced, Nuer, South Sudan 

This article offers an analysis of the experience of women in the aftermath of the 1983-2005 civil war in South Sudan. Specifically, the article explores the role of women returnees in South Sudan in contributing to the transformation of independent South Sudan. The study finds that while some women contest and reconfigure gender identities, other reinforce unequal power relations within their households and communities.

Harrell-Bond, Barbara, and Eftihia Voutira. "In Search of ‘Invisible’ Actors: Barriers to Access in Refugee Research." Journal of Refugee Studies 20.2 (2007): 281-98. Link to Article

Keyword: invisible, actors, refugee, research, barriers, access

This research argues that access to refugees is severely restricted, and refugees have been reduced to invisibility. In the Global South, refugees are held in camps while in the North, refugees are held in detention and are equally difficult to access. Drawing on examples from Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Kenya, Greece, and the Former Soviet Union, this paper considers this accessibility issues and barriers to disseminating refugee research arguing that the duty of the researcher is to speak on behalf of refugees. 

Merkx, Jozef. "Refugee Identities and Relief in an African Borderland: A Study of Northern Uganda and Southern Sudan." Refugee Survey Quarterly 21.2 (2002): 113-47. Link to Article

Keyword: refugee, identities, Africa, Northern Uganda, Southern Sudan 

This paper argues that transnational borderlands create specific identity that, the author proposes, should be considered by humanitarian agencies during crisis of forced migration. The author further observes that the identity of people living in borderlands can be more important than a 'refugee' identity, nationality or ethnicity. 

 Wamala, J. "The Health of Refugees and Displaced Persons in South Sudan." International Journal of Infectious Diseases 45.1 (2016): 56. Link to Article

Keyword: health, refugee, displaced, South Sudan 


Sanderson, Mike. "Statelessness and Mass Expulsion in Sudan: A Reassessment of the International Law." Northwestern University Journal of International Human Rights 12.1 (2014) Link to Article

Keyword: denationalization, human rights, ethnic groups, international law 

This article focuses on the statelessness that has come since the succession of South Sudan from Sudan in 2011. 


UN High Commissioner for Refugees. "Global Action Plan to End Statelessness." UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2014). Link to Article 

Keyword: born, gender, protection, documentation 

                        “To End Statelessness within 10 years, the Global Action Plan to End Statelessness: 2014-2024 establishes a guiding framework of 10 Actions to be undertaken  by States with the support of UNHCR and other stakeholders to: resolve existing major situations of statelessness, prevent new cases of statelessness from  emerging and better identity and protect stateless populations.”